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Saturday, 31 March 2018

subnet mask

Subnet Mask

Today our topic is about subnet mask, This topic is important and interesting, most of the people confused in subnet mass, Because their concepts is not clear and always in doubt,  How much you know about subnet mask i don't know, But i ensure you after complete reading of this post your concept and all doubt will be clear forever in easy way. In previous post we have discussed in details about IP concepts, In subnet mask that concept will be use so i will suggest you to refer first IP concepts post after that you can well understand subnet mask. So lets start this topic.






What is Subnet mask ?

Subnet mask introduce from subnetting, Hence to understand subnet mask we have to understand subnetting.Now we will see what is subnetting ? why subnetting is required, If you can recall our IP post reference we have already discussed there are two version of IP one is IPv4 and other is IPv6. We generally use IPv4 and our discussion is also about IPv4 in this version we have limited IP. Now you can think all over the world people required unique IP to connect through internet, But we have limited IP so it is major problem in front of the technology, How to overcome of this problem introduce concept and reason of subnetting. So we can say to overcome the problem of limited IP, We required subnetting.

subnet mask explained

Subnetting is a technique to use IP addresses efficiently or preserved IP addresses with minimum wastage of IP addresses. To do this we have only three methods.

1 Use private IP, We know private IP for class A 10.0.0.0 for class B 172.16.x.x and for class C 192.0.0.0 

2 Use IPv6 where unlimited IP are available no shortage for whole globe 128 bits, remember in IPv4 only 32 bits available.

3 Use Subnetting.

Hence here we will use subnetting concept to find subnet mask, The meaning of subnetting is "network within a network" or logically division of IP addresses,To understand why subnetting is required take an example to well explain the concept of subnetting see below picture.

How to find subnet mask ?

                                                
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Subnet Mask
                                                                 

ip address-public ip address range

IP Address-Public IP Address Range

Today our topic is about IP address very important and interesting because your device laptop,computer, mobile and other devices use IP address to connect with internet globally every device use unique IP address for identification to connect globally.

What is IP address ?  

It is an internet protocol address (IP address) is a numerical level like 172.16.254.1 assign to each device connected to a computer network that uses the internet protocol for communication.
IP address allow a device to communicate with other devices over an IP based network like the internet
An IP address has many parts just like an address location of your house globally suppose your house location address is written as 316 Janpath road New Delhi India then here
316  - house number
Janpath road  - Street
New Delhi  - City
India  - Country




                                                                      
ip address-public ip address range,IP address classes,Public ip address range
IP Address Public IP Address Range
                                                                

motion of centre of mass

Motion of centre of mass

Today our topic is all about motion of centre of mass very very important topic most of the students confused in motion of centre of mass due to lack of key concept of motion of centre of mass, So your all doubt and confusion will be clear here. You will get best concept for motion of centre of mass in this topic.
In previous post we have already studies about basic concept of center of mass, calculation of centre of mass, importance and application of centre of mass.




You can refer the previous post Centre of mass Physics . Now in this topic we will learn what Physics says about motion of centre of mass like velocity, acceleration.
When two bodies moving separately then what effect on motion of centre of mass so lets start.
                                                                       
motion of centre of mass,centre of mass
Motion of Centre of mass
                                                                     

center of mass physics

Center of mass Physics

Today our topic is center of mass Physics. This topic is very important to understand better Physics. Without understanding concept of center of mass Physics, It will not be easy for you to understand better Physics, So try to understand center of mass physics.
In previous post we have already study center of mass basic concept for continuous mass distributed body. You can refer previous post Center of mass formula .But here we will study center of mass for hollow and solid hemisphere with easy concept.   




What is center of mass Physics ?

Center of mass of  a body is that point where whole mass of the body is concentrated it can lie within the body or outside the body depends upon the shape of the body.

Why need to study center of mass Physics ? 

In Practical every rigid body has some shape and size . If the body comes in motion then every point on rigid body have different velocity and acceleration. 
Suppose a rigid body of some mass m is rotating about its axis as well as translate. Every point on rigid body will have different velocity and acceleration.
It is really difficult to calculate velocity and acceleration of all point on rigid body.
Hence there is a single point where whole mass is concentrated is called center of mass and that point velocity and acceleration is consider as whole body velocity and acceleration.
Hence that special point is called center of mass.
We know that Newton's second law . Fnet = ma, p = mv. Here in this case "a" and "v"  is acceleration of center of mass  and "v" velocity of center of mass. If any body do combined motion rotational and translational then its path analysis will be easy, When we sit on center of mass and analyse body other particle motion.
Generally center of mass path is easy like (straight line, Circle, Projectile)       
Hence you can think the importance of center of mass.
Fnet  = ma equation has two important condition
Here "a" is acceleration of center of mass and m is a point mass.This is reason we need to study center of mass physics.

Practical uses and Application of center of mass Physics 

The center of mass plays an important role in astronomy. The barycenter is the point between two objects where they balanced each other. 
It is the center of mass where two or more celestial bodies orbit each other. When a moon orbits a planet or a planet orbits a star, both bodies are actually orbiting around a point that lies away from the center of the large bodies.
For example the moon does not orbit the exact center of the earth but a point on a line between the center of the earth and the moon, approximately 1710 km below the surface of the earth. Where their respective masses are balanced. This is the point about which the earth and moon orbits.
Automotive applications  engineers try to design sport car so that its center of mass is lowered to make the car handle easy.
Also uses in aeronautic, high jumping .
Now i think you have understand the importance of center of mass.

How to find hollow hemispherical center of mass ? 

                                                               




center of mass physics,center of mass hollow hemisphere
Center of mass hollow hemisphere
                                                                     

Different Forces in the world

Different Forces in the world

How many types of Forces in the World ? 

Lets start with good morning Very first we will see what is force ?
Force is a notion experience or feel of push or Pull.We found force in the world every place most important point about force see force always come in picture between two bodies one body apply force and other body receive force without two body force can't come in picture.Here some example of forces is given below in picture see in every forces there is two body. 
                                                     
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Different Forces in the world
                                         

Antenna communication system

Antenna communication system 

Today our topic is antenna communication system and it is very important part of communication system so to understand telecommunication technology we must know antenna and its working principle so that we can better understand about telecommunication technology in previous post we have already studies basic communication system you can refer previous post 
basic communication system here in this topic we will discuss how does an antenna work.

working principle of antenna                                        


Antenna communication system,
Antenna Communication system

                                                               

what is subnetting

What is Subnetting ?

Today our topic is very important, What is subnetting ? .You will easily understand subnetting in this topic.In previous post we have learn basic concept of subnetting.You can refer that basic concepts  so that you will understand why subnetting is necessary in network. I will suggest you to go through basic concept of subnetting




Subnetting means ?

Subnetting is a technique to partition a single physical network into more than one smaller logical sub-networks. An IP address include two parts one is network part and other is host part.
Each IP address consist of the subnet mask. All the class types such as Class A, Class B, Class C include the subnet mask know as default subnet mask.

How to do subnetting ? 

Suppose you want to setup five different network, Then you have two choices first buy five different network ID, But this network ID will be very costly so will not prefer to buy five different network. Second buy a single network ID and divide this single network ID into five different sub-network ID, Which is called subnetting. Hence we will prefer subnetting as shown in below picture.
                                                             
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What is Subnetting ?



                                                                         

center of mass formula

Center of mass Formula

Today our topic is for center of mass formula for continuous distribution of mass of the body. This topic is conceptual but important for whole topic in physics. So we will learn from basic concept to depth .Once you will learn the basic concept, Physics will be easy for you in every topic and your concept will developed the way to think about problems. In previous post we have study about basic concept of center of mass, When body is discrete, Means two or more body masses are separate. You can refer post center of mass But in this topic we will study center of mass formula, When body mass is distributed continuously, Hence the previous post formula will not be applicable, So have to drive new center of mass formula, So lets start and enjoy learning center of mass formula.




integration meaning 

As we have discussed here body mass will be continuous distribution over a shape and length, not in discrete manner. So we required here concept of Integration meaning.
So that you can well understand without any doubt.
Hence first see the Integration meaning, Then will continue for center of mass formula derivation.

                                                                     

conservation of momentum formula

conservation of momentum formula

Today our topic is conservation of momentum very important topic. We will discuss this topic from basic concept to depth concept of conservation of momentum.First we will discuss what is momentum and then how momentum of a system is conserved by taking practical example.
In previous topic we have already learn about centre of mass of a system, So that concept of centre of mass also be use in the conservation of momentum.
So i will suggest you to go through topic of centre of mass for easy understand, You can refer previous post Centre of mass important point  to understand concept of centre of mass. Now lets start conservation of momentum.  




What is momentum ?  

                                                                     
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                                                     Conservation of momentum        
                                                                     

what is web hosting

what is web hosting ?

Web hosting is today topic for us. This is important topic because we all are using internet so we should know that actually meaning of web hosting. we know that this is modern era of technology. Digital media is booming, its perception is in year about 2020 it will be one of the largest sector of employment. So you must know about internet parameter like web hosting, domain name, How web hosting is done.If you are interested  how to earn money online then you should know about web hosting.

First understand domain name before hosting

Domain name is also called DNS (Domain name system or domain name service or domain name server).Don't worry i am starting from basic so that you can understand well about domain name .If you use internet then you must know DNS. it can be hack by spoofing.
Now your computer and internet are automatically connected together means a full network is there. Like you are reading this post through internet so you are connected through DNS server through ISP (Internet service provider like Jio, Airtel) through internet then you are able to read this post online.
                                                                        
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Web Hosting




           
See the above picture. Every computer connected with internet in the world makes a network. Now this computer network which help to connect one computer to other computer or one mobile to other mobile connect through IP address.
I have already discussed in our previous post about IP address in details. You can refer 

IP address is just like your mobile number but it is four octet bit number logical address like 100.27.213.28 which is assign to your computer so that whenever your computer will connect through internet then this logical IP address is used for communication through this IP address.

Now Important point for domain name when you type google.com, facebook.com, physicseasytips.com on your computer to open the browser, Then your computer does not know IP address of google.com now DNS server has IP of google.com and DNS server connect your computer to google.com. Hence without IP address you can not connect to any website or can not open any website.
So our human ability is that we don't remember number but we easily remember name like we save any number in our mobile with name to call any person easily. With this thought domain server was made like google, facebook,youtube,physicseasytips  and this is called domain name.
I hope you have now understand domain name.

So when you open google.com then request goes to DNS server and provide IP address of google.com to your computer and your computer connect to google.com.
Hence every ISP company like Airtel, Jio has its own DNS server, Which provide IP address to your computer to connect with different website.

There is one problem everyday many new website hosting is done and many old website hosting are expired so DNS server need to update every time.
So whenever Airtel,BSNL server is down then when you try to open google.com then not connect.
Public DNS is also there google provide to ISP so that all ISP can configure in there DNS to obtain IP Address of any website which can connect easily in case of ISP server down.Now we will discuss Web hosting.

Web hosting 

You have chooses domain name and registration of domain name is done like physicseasytips.com, But whatever i will do on this website article posting, image loading anything update, Where i will store this data of course required a server, We can't made web hosting server in our home because it required 24x7 internet connection, electric power availability or high internet speed required.





So that anybody comes to our website from any part of the world, then our hosting server can process fast to provide data to the user. So we can't make hosting server at home as the requirement mentioned 
Now for this other companies are running their data center and has made their hosting server with all required facilities so we just pay some amount of money and they provide their server to us for the use of our website file data and remotely we can store our website data to that company hosting server.

Hence just like DNS server hosting server is there to store our website data and we can upload data to hosting server.If anyone open your website he can access your website file through hosting server.

Now you know that there are many language like html,css, php,Linux, windows in which website files are stored.
Hence there are mainly two type of hosting server one is windows hosting server and other is linux hosting server. Windows hosting server is costly because in windows hosting server need licence, But in linux hosting server it is open source

so it does't required licence so linux hosting server is cheap.Server hosting also depends upon traffic if your website has no more traffic then you no need to buy big server hosting. There is server level hosting see below.

Hosting Server types 

                                                                             
what is web hosting,hosting,website hosting,
                                                                            
There are three types of hosting server
1 Shared hosting
2 Virtual private servers (VPS) hosting
3 Dedicated Servers hosting 

Server is just like our computer but we do some special configuration in this computer, So there are many companies working on data center and provide hosting server service up to 99% up time.Now suppose any company made a big hosting server 16GB ram and I3 processor and full hosting server is provided to you then its hosting server cost will increase and this type of hosting server is called dedicated server hosting.

Now suppose in one hosting server above mentioned if divided into three virtual hosting machine and provided to three users separate to three different hosting user this is called virtual private servers (VPS) hosting.

Now Suppose in one VPS hosting server we made many small hosting such that many hosting user can shared this VPS hosting this is called shared hosting.




Now if your website is new and traffic is low 100 to 1000 users then you can use Shared hosting, If your website is taking traffic more than 1000 users at a time then you should chose VPS hosting.But your website large traffic like eCommerce website flipcart, Amazone then you should go for dedicated web hosting.Hosting totally depend upon the traffic of website i hope you have understand hosting.

Now suppose if you are using shared hosting and hosting company has given ten user hosting within one VPS, Now if one hosting is take more traffic then other 9 hosting user website will effect CPU will give all the time slot to more traffic taking time and other hosting user site will down. So this is disadvantage of shared hosting.
But hosting company manage this by monitoring the all site traffic so that other hosting site can not be down long time. Now this is all about web hosting.

Which companies are providing web hosting

There are many companies which are providing web hosting some important companies name for web hosting from where you can buy web hosting for your website, If you will do Google for web hosting you can see below picture.
                                                                   
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Apart from this many many other companies are also there which are providing web hosting. Godaddy and BigRock are Indian companies.
Above any companies you can buy web hosting for your website all are providing well services to his customer.

Free Web hosting 

There are also many companies which are providing free web hosting, If you will do Google then many companies are providing web hosting only for limited period generally one year free web hosting. If you are using free web hosting and your website are taking more traffic then free hosting site will down.
So i will suggest you never go for free web hosting. If by any means all free web hosting site are closed then your website all data file will lost. So if you are planing for long time internet business then you should buy web hosting. But if you want to just test and learn website design then your can chose free web hosting.

Web hosting plan

Any above company you can see the hosting plan just signup with your email address and go the the hosting plan. Here you will find one year hosting plan, two year, five year hosting plan.Which types of facilities hosting company are providing, you can see all details about hosting plan just see below picture about hosting plan.




                                                                 
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 Hosting and domain relation  

We have already discussed in details about domain without domain you can not do hosting first you have chose your website name like physicseasytips.com registration on DNS server then you can use hosting. Without name what you will do hosting to understand better relation between hosting and domain. We will take an example so that both term hosting and domain should clear concept.

Suppose if you want to make a house then what do you .First you buy the land means registration of land on your name so domain is just like registration of land with your website name . Now after registration of land you buy other material like cement, rod, brick to make the house on that land, Similarly hosting is making the house on that land with your website name.

Hosting and domain expiry period 

Well you should know expiry period of hosting and domain every year you have to renew your hosting as well as domain if you will not renew then you hosting and domain will expire then you will lose your website name as well as your website data.

How data and content is uploaded in hosting 

After buy hosting of any company .you will get a control panel generally called Cpanel. First you will login to your control panel hosting .After login you can do anything . You can write content, you can upload image, video to your website hosting server.

How to connect hosting with domain 

Your domain name need to map with your hosting server. IP address of hosting server is map with DNS server CNAME only IP address and name is map with hosting server so that hosting server can recognize your domain.

Can buy hosting other company and domain other company ?  

Yes you can buy hosting and domain with two different company. But as told to make website live you have to map domain with your hosting server then your website can be live and anyone from any part of the world will be able to visit or can access your website.
After making site live you can told the world to see my post on my domain like physicseasytips.com. You can refer to learn what is internet in 10 minutes 
what is internet history We will continue in next post.





Now i hope that you have understand domain name and hosting and enjoyed learning what is web hosting. If you like comment and share, Thanks for reading and sharing hosting learn and grow.

Dated 12th Nov 2018                 
              

centre of mass important points and numerical

Centre of mass important points and numerical

Today our topic is about centre of mass important points and numerical. This topic is important because we will discuss in this topic key point of centre of mass. If your theory concept is not clear you can't solve the numerical problem. So it is very important to clear your theory concept first to solve the numerical problem.

So we are going to discuss here key theory point for center of mass and then solve the numerical problem easily.
In the previous post we have already discussed about motion of center of mass. If you have read that post i will suggest you to go through that post before learning this post.
Because we have already discussed basic and important point about centre of mass, You can refer that post motion of centre of mass.

Centre of mass important point you must know





                                                           
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                                                 Center of Mass important point

Centre of mass always for a rigid bodies, Centre of mass is a point and the specialty of this point we suppose that whole mass of the rigid bodies lies on that point.
Center of mass point may lies inside the rigid  body or  may lies outside the rigid body depends upon the shape and size of body
This is an imaginary point can be anywhere.
If Centre of mass is taken as origin then its all particle moment or effect is zero about the origin or moment about centre of mass is always zero.
∑mⱼrⱼ  = 0 this is very important result used in rotation. 
Our laws of motion are applicable for point mass, Now in rigid body or system of particle no point mass because in system of particle every particle has mass.
Now we want to apply laws of motion so we can't directly apply laws of motion on system of particle. Hence to apply laws of motion we consider centre of mass for system of particle.
                                                            

center of mass concepts

center of mass Concepts

Today our topic is about center of mass very important topic for physics, If you will understand this topic well then you can command over the mechanics complex and difficult problems, With the help of Center of mass concept, You can solve the numerical problems easily. This center of mass concept is used broadly in rotational and transnational mechanics, Center of mass has great importance to understand concept of mechanics, Hence lets start center of mass basic meaning and its concepts.

center of mass definition physics  

Center of mass meaning mass of center not the geometric center only mass center, Hence center of mass is that point, Where we suppose whole of the mass is concentrated, Which can be lies inside the body or lies outside the body. some important facts about center of mass.




Some important facts about Center of mass 

1 Center of mass is an imaginary point ( Why imaginary point ? because it is not necessary there may be something it may free space, Hence center of mass point can be free space no anything at that point so it is called imaginary point )

2 Center of mass may or may not be located on system (why it lies outside system ? because every body or system want stability and minimum energy, hence Center of mass lies outside to balance system )

3 Whole mass of the body system can be assumed to be concentrated on center of mass ( why that ? because when body pass with any process considering as whole mass the output result will be same as when considering pass through center of mass).
                                                                 
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Center of mass Concepts

                                                          

subnetting questions

Subnetting Questions

This post is about subnetting part 3, You will learn here final concept of subnetting in this post and this is last post on subnetting. We have already learn two post in previous on subnetting.
If you have not seen that two post, I will suggest you to first go through that post to understand final concept of subnetting well. I ensure you after study of three post, You will never forget the concept of subnetting and subnet mask, All three post written as simple. Refer previous post what is subnetting ? .





Today we will do subnetting of class A IP address network in previous post we have done subnetting on class C where limited subnet ID was possible in class C very less only 4.
Where as in Class A large number of subnet ID is possible.
So today we have taken class A IP address for subnetting.

First you have to design Network. How much IP required in network each and every interface. So lets our network design is given below with IP requirement.
                                                             
subnetting questions,subnet mask cheat sheet,subnet calculator cidr
Subnetting Questions

Lets take Class A IP 12.0.0.0, Now we have to provide subnet ID for all five Interfaces as shown in above picture. Hence five new network is required in our design of network.

Now we have take class A IP address try to understand the steps.

Steps for Subnetting questions

1  write down the given class A IP  12.0.0.0
2  We know that this is class A IP hence first octet is reserved for network and three octet are reserved for host see below picture.
                                                                 
subnetting questions,subnet mask cheat sheet,subnet calculator cidr



Keep Network part as it and convert host part into binary, Then it will be like this.

IP address 12.00000000.00000000.00000000 ( host id converted into binary )
Now check the maximum number of IP required among the five new network interface,  
Here in this case 60 PC interface is maximum number required.
Select maximum value interface to design network, small will be adjusted itself.





3 write the equation 2ⁿ -2 ≥ maximum value interface so in this case we can write



 2ⁿ -2 ≥ 60 , Put n =1, 2, 3, 4,..... so on such that the value of n which must satisfy this equation.
If we put n =1  which will not satisfy 
if we put n= 2 , n =3, n= 4, n= 5, ( all these value of n will not satisfy the above equation ).

But n = 6 then equation will become 2⁶ -2 ≥ 60   or 62≥60 this is correct, Hence value of n =6 satisfy the equation.

                                              Network           host 
4 Now write IP  12.00000000.00000000.00000000 
                                                                                ← 

Now you have to reserved 6 bits for host from left side, Rest make the values 1, 
Science network bits represented by 1 and host bits represented by 0 . If i am making host bits 1 then its mean that , I am giving host bits to network and this is called subnetting, Then it will look like this.

5  IP address  12.11111111.11111111.11000000  now convert this binary bits into decimal then we will get 12.255.255.192 

6 what will be subnet mask for 12.255.255.192 ?
We know that subnet mask for class A by default is 255.0.0.0, Hence subnet mask for 
12.255.255.192  will be 255.255.255.192 because you have changed host bits to network bits so it will be not same as by default.





Now if you want to write CDIR value, Hare count how much bits for network is used in IP address, Here in this case total network bits 8+8+8+2 = 26 .

Hence first subnet ID will be 12.0.0.0/26 so its subnet mask will be 255.255.255.192

How to make next subnet mask ?   

                                                                                                                    ↓
Now take the first bits of 1 from left to right in IP  12.11111111.11111111.11000000  
Find the decimal value of that 1 , So its decimal value is 64.Add this value into first subnet ID 12.0.0.0/26, then it will be  12.0.0.64  
Hence Subnet ID -2   will be 12.0.0.64/26. 

First subnet ID   = 12.0.0.0/26
Second subnet ID = 12.0.0.64/26 ( broadcast ID will be 12.0.0.63 )
Third subnet ID   = 12.0.0.128/26 ( broadcast ID will be 12.0.0.127 ) one less than maximum value.
fourth subnet ID  = 12.0.0.192/26   (broadcast ID will be 12.0.0.191 ).

Now we have found four subnet ID, But we have five new network, So we required one more subnet ID . So add 64 in 4th subnet ID hence 192 +64  = 256, this value is not possible because maximum value in any octet will be 255.
So for this you have to do like this.

Use watch concept, How time in watch change.

m    s

4 : 59 pm  here m is minute and s is second, When one minute increase then watch not show like 4 : 60 ,  It shows  5 : 00 

Hence here same watch concept will be use, when reach maximum value so this is main concept. Now we can write fifth subnet ID. 

Fifth Subnet ID  = 12.0.1.0/26    subnet mask  255.255.1.255
Sixth Subnet ID  = 12.0.1.64/26   subnet mask  255.255.1.64
seventh subnet D = 12.0.1.128/26
eighth Subnet ID = 12.0.1.192/26
ninth subnet ID = 12.0.2.0/26  and so on 



Last Subnet ID is 12.255.255.192/26 


Now suppose you have an IP 200.10.20.10/26 then question is how many maximum host can link to this or how many computer we can add to this subnet ID.

Ans It is simple first you see which class IP is this, So this is class C IP now in class C IP three octet are reserved for network and one for host so total 32 bits.
But as per CIDR value it is clear that here 26 bits are used for network, So 32 - 26 = 6 bits are left for host .
Hence number of computer can be add to this subnet ID will be 2⁶ - 2 = 64- 2 = 62 
So we can connect 62 maximum computer to this subnet ID.

We will continue in next post.I hope you have enjoyed to learn subnetting questions if you like comment and share on social media thanks for reading and sharing keep learning more and more 

Dated 27th Oct 2018